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پارابل روایت کوتاهی است که در آن شباهت های جزء به جزء بسیاری با یک اصل اخلاقی یا مذهبی یا عرفانی وجود دارد و از این رو معمولاً از زبان پیامبران و عارفان و مردان بزرگ شنیده شده است 

اگزمپلوم  یا داستان – مثال (مثال داستانی) است. اگزمپلوم داستان تمثیلی کوتاهی است که شهرت بسیار داشته باشد و شنونده به محض شنیدن تمام آن و حتی قسمتی از آن فوراً متوجه مشبه یا منظور باطنی گوینده و یک نتیجۀ اخلاقی شود.


سمبل را در پارسی رمز و مظهر و نماد گویند.                    سمبل بر دو نوع است

الف: قراردادی و عمومی: سمبل های عمومی به دلیل تکرار زیاد دلالت آنها را بر یکی دو مشبه صریح و روشن است که به این سمبل ها اصطلاح مبتذل می گویند مانند: ساقی و شراب نماد معنویت

ب: سمبل های خصوصی شخصی: این نوع سمبل ها در ادبیات کهن سابقه آنچنانی ندارند و خود شاعر با قرارداد هایی که داستان و شعر را پیش می برد این نماد را ایجاد می کند مثلا مولانا خورشید را نماد شمس تبریزی و خدا قرار می دهد و یا زنبور طلایی در بوف کور نماد عشق است.معمولا عرفا در اشعار خود سمبل هایی را که ایجاد می کردند تفسیر می نمودند در مثنوی معنوی بسیاری از این نمونه ها موجود است مثلا در داستان طوطی و بقال- طوطی نماد انسان نادان است که هر چیزی را قیاسی از خود می گیرد.

آنیمیسم یا جاندار انگاری در تفکر بشر قدیم که هنوز در ادبیات زنده و رایج است همه چیز جاندار بوده است: باد می آمد و شب می رفت.





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پنجشنبه 18 آبان 1391 :: نویسنده : مجید زاهد نمازی
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